Trends in the consumption of fresh and processed citrus fruits
Panorama of the world citrus market:
the singular evolution of easy peelers
Eric Imbert, Cirad-flhor, France
Easy peelers dominate world fruit production. However, although
these products are incontestably leaders in terms of production,
their position on world markets has weakened. Two figures make this
easier to understand: trade in citrus formed approximately a third
of all trade in fruits in the 1970s and amounted to a quarter in
2000. Indeed, economic and social changes encouraged consumers to
turn to an increasingly broad range of competing products ranging
from juices to concentrates containing vitamins. But the singular
evolution of easy peelers shows that pessimism is nevertheless not
the order of the day.
Firstly, a spectacular increase in trade in citrus fruits has been
observed. The volume increased from 5.5 million tonnes to nearly
10 million tonnes between 1970 and 2000, that is to say an annual
increase of about 2%. This spectacular development should nonetheless
be tempered. Indeed, banana, for example, with some 6 million tonnes
traded in the 1970s, developed much more strongly as a result of
a strong increase in the 1990s, causing an annual increase of 3%.
Another fairly similar example is trade in pome fruits which increased
from 4.2 million tonnes in the 1970s to 14 million tonnes in 2000.
The greatest increase was in exotic fruits, with the quantity traded
increasing from 200 000 tonnes in 1970 to 2.3 million de t in 2000,
a record annual increase of more than 8%. The evolution of trade
in stone fruits is fairly similar, with an increase from 700 000
to 2 million t during the same period, i.e. more than 3% per year.
Overall, analysis of total fruits shows an increase from 16.8 million
tonnes to over 40 million t, giving a 3% annual increase-much greater
than that of citrus fruits.
Very different patterns of evolution
However, evolution has been very varied within the citrus group.
Less than 4 million tonnes of oranges were traded in 1970 and slightly
more than 4 million tonnes in 2000, an annual increase of less than
0.5%. Lemon is slightly above the average for citrus with exported
quantities increasing from 700 000 to 1.6 million tonnes. The same
applies to grapefruit, which had a glorious period from 1970 to
1985 and has since been relatively stable in terms of the volumes
traded. The pattern of the curve for easy peelers is different.
Explosive growth caused a rise from 500 000 tonnes in 1970 to 2.5
million tonnes in 2000. Easy peelers accounted for only 10% of the
quantities traded in 1970 but now form a quarter of transactions.
It is noted that the increase has not tailed off in recent years
as analysis of the period 1990-2000 reveals an annual increase of
6%, just behind exotic fruits at 8%. Easy peelers are therefore
now international products. Analysis of the proportion destined
for export reveals 10% for citrus, which is better than total fruits
(9%) and vegetables (4%), while easy peelers score 14%. Performance
is nevertheless not as good as those of international agricultural
raw material market leaders such as wheat and bananas.
Easy peelers: a special group
The reasons for this increase in trade in easy peelers include
the fact that there is less competition from processing than for
the other citrus fruits. The evolution of orange clearly indicates
the changes in consumption patterns. Observation of the fresh export,
processing and domestic consumption market segments shows that the
fresh export share decreased from 15% of volumes in 1970 to 7% in
2000. In contrast, processing developed markedly from 31% of volumes
in 1970 to 42% in 2000 with quantities increasing from less than
9 million to over 25 million tonnes. These changes are to be ascribed
to the search by consumers for more convenient products, the excessively
present marketing of juices and the steady increase in their quality.
For example, non-concentrated juice formed 10% of Florida exports
at the beginning of the 1990s and increased to nearly 50% in 2000.
There has thus been a very distinct shift in oranges and lemons
from fresh fruits to processed products. There was no growth in
processed easy peelers whereas fresh fruits gained more than 5%.
It is not economically attractive to process easy peelers for juice;
harvesting costs much more than for orange, the juice yield is smaller
and the organoleptic quality is lower when classic technologies
Furthermore, the broadening of the range of varieties was the vector
of this dynamism. In 1980, supplies were limited to the dominant
satsumas and clementines and the first hybrids to appear, such as
'Minneola'. A clear strategy of lengthening the season was observed
in the 1990s, with new early clementines such as 'Marisol' and late
clementines or hybrids such as 'Nova', 'Fortuna' and ortaniques.
The range was further completed in 2000 by means of a qualitative
substitution strategy with the appearance of 'Arrufatina' and 'Oronules',
which are early clementines of better quality than 'Marisol' and
end-of-season hybrids such as 'Afourer' and the Israeli 'Mor' and
'Or'. These changes affect the structure of this range. Satsumas
had a 37% share in 1980 that decreased to 11% in 2000. Clementines
increased from 59 to 64%. Above all, hybrids displayed a very strong
increase of more than 20% from 1990 to 2000.
But what are the effects of this broadening of the range in terms
of quantities and is it possible to try to measure them? Analysis
of the 1978-1980 and 1998-2000 averages for October to January shows
that the quantities traded from Mediterranean countries increased
by about 69%. Monthly application of the same analysis reveals an
increase fairly close to the average for December and January, a
fall in November and a strong increase in quantities in October
linked to the replacement of satsuma by clementine, the lengthening
of the season and supplies of better quality. A similar observation
was made for the end of the season, with the development of the
range of hybrids allowing a strong increase in the quantities consumed
at the level of the Mediterranean area. The average increase from
December to April was some 96%. The increase was much stronger at
the end of the season (February to April) as a result of the broadening
of the range.
An increasingly international market
The third important factor is the efforts made to find new markets.
Exporters have been particularly imaginative in the easy peeler
sector. From 1980 to 2000, Western Europe lost approximately 20%
of the volumes traded to Eastern Europe (Poland and Russia in particular),
which gained 13%. The volumes shipped to North America increased
distinctly under the effect of sustained shipments from Spain and
Morocco. To a lesser extent, a shift has been observed towards the
Middle East and other markets. The southern hemisphere exporters
have not lacked imagination either. Indeed, an easy peeler counter-season
market has developed in the EU over the past 15 years or so at the
initiative of southern Africa and South America. It did not exist
before and has now reached about 100 000 tonnes. In addition, growth
has not stopped as trade with emerging countries such as Chile and
Peru is developing strongly.
The driving forces leading to the success of the easy peeler market
from 1970 to 2000 are still there. The creation of varieties is
still very dynamic, especially in the Mediterranean area. It should
make it possible to make produce more attractive at certain times
during the season when quality is still a delicate point. Better-coloured,
sweeter fruits should therefore appear during the first part of
the season. Likewise, fruits with fewer pips and that are easier
to peel should appear at the end of the season. It can also be imagined
that new products might be launched, such as easy peelers with colouring
similar to that of blood oranges. Finally, there is still substantial
room for growth in certain markets. Those in Eastern Europe are
absolutely not saturated, especially in hybrids. The enlargement
of the European Union should enable a substantial increase in the
quantities shipped to these markets. Another point is that the quantities
exported to North America should also increase strongly if non-tariff
barriers were removed. Indeed, the production of high-quality easy
peelers is still in the early stages in this part of the world.
The strong development of shipments to the large consumer markets
in Asia can also be hoped for, with the impact of Chinese membership
of the WTO and the present attempts by Spanish exporters to penetrate
the Japanese market.
Evolution of the fresh citrus fruits
Frederik van der Monde, Univeg, Belgium
Community policy concerning citrus
Raimondo Serra, European Commission
Fruit and vegetables and preventive
Catherine Nicolle **, Christian Rémésy
* Unité des Maladies Métaboliques et Micronutriments
- INRA Clermont-Ferrand / Theix , 63122 Saint Genès Champanelle,
** Vilmorin Clause & Cie, BP 1, 63 720 Chappes, France
2: Breeding and certification of plant material: towards a new generation
The new clementine varieties
Francisco Llatser, Viveros Avasa, Spain
Varietal diversification in the
mandarin group: the promise of seedless hybrid triploids
P. Ollitrault *, D. Dambier *, F. Luro
**, Y. Froelicher **
* Cirad-flhor Montpellier, TA 50/PS4, 34398 Montpellier cedex 5,
** SRA Inra-Cirad, San Giuliano, 20215 San Nicolao, France
Rootstocks, a key component in sustainable
C. Jacquemond *, F. Curk *, R. Zurru **,
D. Ezzoubir ***, T. Kabbage ****, F. Luro *,
P. Ollitrault *****
* SRA Inra-Cirad, San Giuliano, 20230 San Nicolao, Corse, France
** Consorzio Interprovinciale per la Frutticoltura, Cagliari, Sardinia,
*** Direction des Domaines Agricoles, Casablanca, Morocco
**** Domaines Abbes kabbage, Taroudant, Morocco
***** Cirad-flhor, TA 50/PS4, 34398 Montpellier cedex 5, France
The behaviour of traditional rootstocks
under abiotic constraints in Morocco
Driss Ezzoubir, Domaines Agricoles, Morocco
The Spanish varietal certification
Luis Navarro, J.A. Pina, J. Juárez, J.F. Ballester-Olmos,
N. Duran-Vila, J. Guerri, P. Moreno, C. Ortega, A. Navarro, J.M.
Arregui, M. Cambra, S. Zaragoza
Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), 46113-Moncada,
The implications of varietal protection
UMR 1098, Biologie du développement des plantes pérennes
cultivées, ENSA.M - INRA, 2 place viala, 34060 Montpellier
Quality from the orchard onwards: the impact of pests and diseases
The present status of citrus pathogens
in the Mediterranean basin
Christian Vernière *, Luis Navarro **,
Joseph Marie Bové ***
* Cirad-flhor, TA 50/PS4, 34398 Montpellier cedex 5, France
** IVIA, Moncada, Valencia, Spain
*** INRA et Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, BP 81,
33883 Villenave d'Ornon, France
Mediterranean citrus pests
Cirad-flhor, Pôle de Protection des Plantes (3P), 7 Chemin
de l'IRAT, 97410, Saint-Pierre, La Réunion, France
Citrus leaf spot in tropical and subtropical
Africa: a threat for neighbouring regions?
Christian Vernière *, Jean Kuaté
* Cirad-flhor, TA 50/PS4, 34398 Montpellier cedex 5, France
** IRAD, Yaoundé, Cameroun
Tephritid fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae):
pests of economic significance for citrus production
J.P. Cayol, W. Enkerlin, A. Bakri, J.
Insect Pest Control Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division for Food and
Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria
The labelling policy in Corsica and Spain
Promotion policies in the citrus sector
Octavio Ramon, President of CLAM, President of CGC, Vice-President
of Intercitrus, Spain
An example of segmentation by
origin: the PGI for Corsican clementine
Dominique Agostini* , JA. Prost**, F. Casabianca**, J.
* Station de Recherches Agronomiques (SRA) INRA-CIRAD - San Giuliano
** Laboratoire de Recherche sur le Développement et l'Elevage
(LRDE) INRA - Corte - Corsica
The greater part of French citrus production is in Corsica, covering
about 2 000 hectares in a narrow area in the eastern plain, with
little possibility of extension and small-scale production of nearly
25 000 tonnes per year. After developing strongly for many years
thanks to an exclusive right to market clementines with leaves,
the sector was faced with a serious challenge after the loss of
this feature following a European decision in 1993. A protected
geographical indication thus seemed to be the appropriate response.
Corsican production is mainly for France and has very little impact
on the European market. Very profitable, Corsican clementine with
leaves has made it possible to structure an entire production sector
ranging from growers to packers, transport services and wage-earners.
This activity has an important position in the Corsican economy.
In 1993, a European decision resulted in Corsica losing the benefit
of exclusive use of marketing with leaves. Furthermore, this production
entered into competition with other origins such as Spain and Morocco.
Indeed, a strategy of growing varieties not always suited to Corsica
had been used in order to achieve large market presence. The sector
therefore encountered increased marketing difficulties and production
became less profitable as the years went by. These various features
led Corsican growers to opt for segmentation by origin.
Quality: an issue for the sector
The question of quality thus arose naturally and could become a
true issue for the sector. It was first a question of defending
the renown of the product as perceived by the production sector.
It was defined by the sale, with leaves, of a fairly characteristic
acidulous, coloured fruit with a green base showing that it ripened
on the tree, medium size resulting from the cultivation conditions
and above all freshness shown by the presence of leaves.
The other issue for the sector was to remain in sustainable, profitable
citrus growing and to maintain clementine growing according to the
twin notion of a 'farming system' implying a whole economic fabric
and a 'set of skills' that Corsican growers succeeded in acquiring
as the orchards became specialised very rapidly. Indeed, citrus
arrived in Corsica in the 1920s. Substantial breeding work was conducted
on both varieties and rootstocks at San Giuliano agricultural research
station. Rootstocks and common clementine were chosen very rapidly
as they were the most suitable. Corsica specialised in clementine
from the 1970s onwards and now possesses monospecific orchards.
In 1994, an integrated research programme combining several disciplines
was set up. Indeed, there are several representations of quality
depending on the sector stakeholder. Growers do not perceive quality
in the same way as traders or distributors. The same applies in
research between agronomists, economists and technologists. Three
levels of analysis of quality variability were therefore set out.
The first is field gate quality, representing the interaction between
soil, climate and the cultural practices used. The second is the
quality of the fruits leaving the packing station, where various
handling operations have been performed, sometimes rather opaque
and unsuitable. Finally, the last level is the evolution of quality
throughout the itinerary of the fruit when it is sold. Traditionally,
Corsican producers considered that good production and good packing
were enough to ensure a high-quality product for the consumer. They
thus delegated a certain capacity for transactions and confidence
to partners-with no return of information. The analysis conducted
over a three-year period was aimed at identifying the critical points
in the construction or failure of quality and the various possible
levels of interaction. The diagnosis performed established that
quality is not built up once and for all in the field and that it
deteriorates during transport. The initial quality must therefore
be very high if one wishes it to be maintained on the market.
The notion of origin
The approach also led to wondering about the notion of origin.
What qualities are referred to by the term 'Clémentine de
The commercial existence of a Corsican origin beyond the question
of leaves had been clearly identified by stakeholders downstream.
It was a question of a product distinct from the common clementine
but its characteristics were not always homogeneous or stable. In
contrast, it was identifiable by particular features: small size,
acidulous taste and colour. So, how could this quality be guaranteed
and how could these original characteristics be explained? Achieving
this required the mobilisation of both institutional and legal mechanisms
that would guarantee the identification of a specific product with
the geographic zone.
All these results caused both a psychological shock and a degree
of confusion. If nothing happened, only a few people would survive
and nobody would talk about Corsican production for much longer
unless everybody reacted. This collective undertaking first concerned
socio-professional partners. Very great efforts were needed to accept
the rule of collective interest over individual benefit and to join
a working group to define strategic choices. Stakeholders in research,
the administration and development also joined the approach.
These results led to the creation in 1999 of a fairly small working
group (some ten people) consisting of professionals whose task was
to consider the best choices for making progress and guaranteeing
the quality of Corsican clementines. When the results were presented
at a general assembly attended by growers, the PGI (a European quality
indication) was proposed as the most suitable choice for production
as recent as that in Corsica; this would award value through mention
of the origin and introducing a certain form of segmentation. This
led to the founding of Aprodec (Association pour la promotion et
la défense de la clémentine de Corse), as required
in the certification procedure. This was followed by the setting
up of the operational phase of the preparation of two national quality
indications that accompany the European procedure: a certificat
de conformité produit (CCP) that defines the reference product
and a Label Rouge indicating high quality.
This work lasted for nearly a year and half and was the occasion
for major discussions in the drawing up of the specification. Today,
'Clémentine de Corse' has certified characteristics with
promotion qualities: Corsican origin, fruits ripening and acquiring
their colour in the trees, fruits picked by hand with their leaves
and no chemical treatment after harvesting.
In September 2001, notice of consultation concerning application
for both a CCP and a PGI at the European and national levels was
recorded. In December 2001, a favourable opinion, with observations
subsequently taken into account, was given by the CNLC (Commission
nationale des labels et des certifications de produits agricoles
et alimentaires) concerning the CCP. After the delivery of various
reports, the profession is now waiting for the administrative validation.
In May 2002, the first national meeting of committee IV of INAO
(Institut national des appellations d'origine) for the PGI application
resulted in a return to the professionals for reworking of the dossier.
The second application, passed on to the European level if validated,
is for the end of October 2002. Of the 150 growers in Corsica, about
120 representing 60 to 70% of production are in favour of the approach.
If all goes well, all growers should be in favour of it.
Work started in 1999 and a PGI application dossier was submitted
in 2002. Ten years has been necessary in some fields to build up
and structure a profession around a certification label. The results
have been rapid and convincing thanks to the association of the
research sector, citrus professional and development bodies. This
positive, constructive interaction enabled scientists to ask the
right questions to be able to reply to the professionals as quickly
as possible and the latter benefited from the different viewpoint
of the research.
5: Innovative juice production techniques
and the bioavailability of micronutrients
Constraints and prospects for citrus
Cirad-flhor, TA 50/PS4, 34398 Montpellier cedex 5, France
Application of the vacuum flash-release
process to citrus for the preparation of purées, nectars
and essential oils
Cirad-flhor, TA 50/PS4, 34398 Montpellier cedex 5, France
Membrane technique application in the
processing of tropical fruit juices
Cirad-flhor / Ensia-Siarc, TA 50/PS4, 34398 Montpellier cedex
Innovations in citrus peeling technology:
commercial development of fresh cut citrus
Mohamed A. Ismail, FDOC, USA
Service - FruiTrop Journal
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